Exact causes of Osteoporosis are yet not known although the disease is affecting a wide range of the global population. Possible factors involved in the development of the disease include:
- BMI: Low BMI i.e. Body mass index is most important risk factor to develop Osteoporosis.
- Genetics: At least 30 genes have been implicated in the development of Osteoporosis although nothing concrete has as yet been established. Yet, a hereditary basis of the disease cannot be refuted.
- Immobilization: Prolonged sedentary life causes bone loss following the 'use it or lose it' saying.
- Substance abuse: Smoking as well as heavy consumption of alcohol can decrease bone mineral density and precipitate Osteoporosis.
- Other medical conditions: Certain diseases like Chronic Kidney Failure, Chronic Liver Disease, Cushing's disease, Anorexia Nervosa, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Diabetes figure as causes of Osteoporosis of secondary type.
- Vitamin D deficiency: Mild vitamin D insufficiency is sometimes associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) production which increases bone resorption, leading to bone loss. This is one of the leading causes of Osteoporosis especially in women.
- Poor diet: Low dietary calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, fluoride, copper and vitamins can contribute to ascendance into Osteoporosis.
- Heavy weight training: Large volumes of training can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of Osteoporosis.