- Joints such as hip and knees become severely inflamed with destructive changes. Enthesitis
- This is the painful inflammation at and around points of attachment of tendon/ligament to bone. Common sites are top of the shin bone, behind and under the heel, and ends of ribs.
- Enthesitis at the ribs can cause chest pain and difficulty in breathing
Osteoporosis and Fractures
- Osteoporosis of the spine may occur.
- Damaged and weakened bones break easily causing compression fractures, especially vertebral bones causing a hump on the back.
- Inflammation of the aorta and aortic valve can cause Aortic Regurgitation.
- There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.
- Chest wall stiffness can cause breathing difficulties.
- Scarring of lung tissues (fibrosis) can also increased the risk of developing lung infections.
- Inflammation of eyes causing eye pain, oversensitivity to light, and blurred vision.