Common causes of Epistaxis:
- Local trauma: Any trauma to the nasal area, blunt or a blow, picking at the nose, fall..
- Drying of nasal mucosa: This is more common in cold weather wherein the mucosa dries up forming crusts leading to itching and bleeding when picked at.
- Nose anomalies - nasal polyps, deviated nasal septum
Less common causes of Epistaxis
- Local infections - vestibulitis, sinusitis, rhinitis
- Foreign bodies - especially in toddlers can tear the mucosa and cause bleeding
- Systemic illnesses - Hypertension, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
- Arteriosclerosis - Loss of elasticity and hardening of arterial walls may cause Epistaxis.
- Coagulopathy/Bleeding disorders- DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation), hemophilia, von willebrands disease
- Malignancy - Abnormal growth of tissue projecting from the nose can cause bleeding.